Shaka, king of the Zulus, was born around 1787 to the Zulu chief Senzangakhona KaJama, and Nandi, of the neighboring Langeni clan. William Rubinstein wrote that "Western guilt over colonialism, have also accounted for much of this distortion of what pre-literate societies actually were like, as does the wish to avoid anything which smacks of racism, even when this means distorting the actual and often appalling facts of life in many pre-literate societies". A monument was built at one alleged site. One visitor, Nathaniel Isaacs, wrote to Henry Fynn, a white adventurer, trader and quasi-local chieftain: Fynn, according to Wylie, complied with the request, and Wylie notes that he had an additional motive to distort Shaka's image— he applied for a huge grant of land— an area allegedly depopulated by Shaka's savagery. Using different informants and genealogical charts, A.T. Bryant arrived at similar conclusions. That year, Henry Francis Fynn and Francis Farewell visited Shaka. credit Shaka with initial development of the famous "bull horn" formation. Shaka observed several demonstrations of European technology and knowledge, but he held that the Zulu way was superior to that of the foreigners. , Another decisive fight eventually took place on the Mhlatuze river, at the confluence with the Mvuzane stream. This produced a sense of common identity amongst them. , Dingane and Mhlangana, Shaka's half-brothers, appear to have made at least two attempts to assassinate Shaka before they succeeded, with perhaps support from Mpondo elements and some disaffected iziYendane people. If a chiefdom resisted, it was conquered and either destroyed or, like the Thembu and Chunu, driven off as landless refugees. The exact location is unknown. The female amabutho. Shaka’s life story is a fascinating tale in the telling. " The throwing spear was not discarded but used as an initial missile weapon before close contact with the enemy, when the shorter stabbing spear was used in hand-to-hand combat. Both his adult personality and his childhood experiences were unusual. , Shaka was able to form an alliance with the leaderless Mthethwa clan and was able to establish himself amongst the Qwabe, after Phakathwayo was overthrown with relative ease. Cementing the Realm Shaka set about consolidating his empire, building enormous military barracks in strategic locations and populating them with vast numbers of new recruits. Nathaniel Isaacs published his Travels and Adventures in Eastern Africa in 1836, creating a picture of Shaka as a degenerate and pathological monster, which survives in modified forms to this day. He was able to recruit additional warriors from these sources and proceeded to train them in his own methods of close combat. KwaBulawayo. Zwide's general Soshangane (of the Shangaan) moved north towards what is now Mozambique to inflict further damage on less resistant foes and take advantage of slaving opportunities, obliging Portuguese traders to give tribute. , It is also supposed that Shaka introduced a larger, heavier version of the Nguni shield. The poem documents his exploits as a king of the Zulu people, produced considerable advances in State structure and military technologies of the Zulu. It is probable that, over time, the Zulu were able to hone and improve their encirclement tactics. A great part of Shaka's life and rule has been referenced in Henry Rider Haggard's fiction novel, Nada the Lily. Taking advantage of the absence of his armies, on 22 September 1828, his bodyguard Mbopha, and his half-brothers Dingane and Mhlangana, stabbed Shaka near his military barracks at Dukuza. Despite carrying out this revenge, Shaka continued his pursuit of Zwide. Shaka, also spelled Chaka or Tshaka, (born c. 1787—died Sept. 22, 1828), Zulu chief (1816–28), founder of Southern Africa ’s Zulu Empire. [clarification needed] To show his gratitude, Shaka permitted European settlers to enter and operate in the Zulu kingdom. Initial Zulu success rested on fast-moving surprise attacks and ambushes, but the Voortrekkers recovered and dealt the Zulu a severe defeat from their fortified wagon laager at the Battle of Blood River. The climax came with the death of his mother Nandi in October 1827, huge numbers were put to death during the mourning ceremonies because they showed insufficient grief; and his armies were sent out to force the surrounding chiefdoms to grieve. His father, Senzangakhona, was a minor chief of one of the Zulu-speaking clans and his mother, Nandi, was daughter of … The "loins" would be committed wherever the enemy impi threatened to break out of the, Zulu king Shaka is referenced in Jamaican, Shaka has been featured as a playable leader for the Zulu civilization in all six, This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 01:06. The battle-axe that excels over other battle-axes in sharpness, Isaacs was aided in this by Henry Francis Fynn, whose diary (actually a rewritten collage of various papers) was edited by James Stuart only in 1950. His 10-year-long kingship resulted in a massive number of deaths, mostly due to the disruptions the Zulu caused in neighbouring tribes, although the exact death toll is a matter of scholarly dispute. argue that Shaka "changed the nature of warfare in Southern Africa" from "a ritualised exchange of taunts with minimal loss of life into a true method of subjugation by wholesale slaughter. Nandi and her son sought sanctuary in the Mhlathuze Valley of the Langeni people. The Zulu tribe soon developed a warrior outlook, which Shaka turned to his advantage.. Officially, they were wards of the king. Sigujana's reign was short, however, as Dingiswayo, anxious to confirm his authority, lent Shaka a regiment so that he was able to put Sigujana to death, launching a relatively bloodless coup that was substantially accepted by the Zulu. Each settlement contained a section of royal women headed by a formidable woman, usually one of Shaka's aunts.  Thus Shaka became Chief of the Zulu clan, although he remained a vassal of the Mthethwa empire until Dingiswayo's death in battle a year later at the hands of Zwide, powerful chief of the Ndwandwe (Nxumalo) nation.  Further unquantifiable deaths occurred during mass tribal migrations to escape his armies. Those who objected to going without sandals were simply killed. . The regimental system clearly built on existing tribal cultural elements that could be adapted and shaped to fit an expansionist agenda.. Shaka was a son of Senzangakhona, ruler of an insignificant small chiefdom, the Zulu. Zwide later murdered Dingiswayo, and, when the leaderless Mthethwa state collapsed, Shaka immediately assumed leadership and began conquering surrounding chiefdoms himself, adding their forces to his own and building up a new kingdom. , According to Julian Cobbing, the development of the view that Shaka was the monster responsible for the devastation is based on the need of apartheid era historians to justify the apartheid regime's racist policies. Shaka Zulu (1787-1828) was one of the greatest heroes in Africa. , Various modern historians writing on Shaka and the Zulu point to the uncertain nature of Fynn and Isaac's accounts of Shaka's reign. It was all the conspirators needed—they being Shaka's half-brothers, Dingane and Mhlangana, and an iNduna called Mbopa. The custom of releasing the build up of sexual tension among young unmarried people, was for a couple to partake in "uKuhlobonga". His war cry was `Victory or death!' Michal Lesniewski has criticised Wylie for some[which?] Boys and girls aged six and over joined Shaka's force as apprentice warriors (udibi) and served as carriers of rations, supplies like cooking pots and sleeping mats, and extra weapons until they joined the main ranks. Other notable figures to arise from the Mfecane include Soshangane, who expanded from the Zulu area into what is now Mozambique. ", Scholarship in recent years has revised views of the sources on Shaka's reign. At the time of his death, Shaka ruled over 250,000 people and could muster more than 50,000 warriors. Although he preferred social and propagandistic political methods, he also engaged in a number of battles.. Their major victory at the Battle of Isandlwana was the most prominent one, but they also forced back a British column at the Battle of Hlobane, by deploying fast-moving regiments over a wide area of rugged ravines and gullies, and attacking the British who were forced into a rapid disorderly fighting retreat, back to the town of Kambula.. Shaka Zulu was the illegitimate son of Senzangakona, King of the Zulus. Once again, most Zulu successes rested on their mobility, ability to screen their forces and to close when their opponents were unfavourably deployed. A cruel tyrant, he had men executed with a nod of his head. As for the ruling Qwabe, they began re-inventing their genealogies to give the impression that Qwabe and Zulu were closely related in the past. Shaka was born in the lunar month of uNtulikazi (July) in the year of 1787 near present-day Melmoth, KwaZulu-Natal Province. Shaka almost certainly spent his childhood in his mother's settlements. Probably when he was about twenty-three years old, he was drafted into one of the Mthethwa regiments where he found a satisfaction he had never known before. Economic and social changes. 1824 European artist's impression of Shaka with a long throwing, A muster and dance of Zulu regiments at Shaka's kraal, as recorded by European visitors to his kingdom, c. 1827, Expansion of power and conflict with Zwide, Shakan methods versus European technology, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFOmer-Cooper1966 (, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Newitt, Malyn D.D. Much controversy still surrounds the character, methods and activities of the Zulu king. The military indunas or captains, as trusted favourites of the king, received many cattle from him and were able to build up large personal followings. Once in power Shaka began reorganizing the forces of his people in accordance with ideas he had developed as a warrior in Dingiswayo's army. His career was a transforming influence in the history of southern and central Africa. SHAKA ZULU 1787 - 1828 Shaka was born in 1787 in unfortunate circumstances. It referred to o… He was ultimately assassinated by his half brothers Dingane and Mhlangana. During his brief reign more than a hundred chiefdoms were brought together in a Zulu kingdom which survived not only the death of its founder but later military defeat and calculated attempts to break it up. Assassination by rivals to the throne is a constant in monarchies throughout history and around the world. Each military settlement had a herd of royal cattle assigned to it, from which the young men were supplied with meat. A more credible account is that the relationship between Nandi and Senzangakhona was illicit, and that Shaka was born in Langeni territory at the Nguga homestead of Nandi's uncle. Shaka was an illegitimate son of a minor chief, Senzangakhona, while his half-brother Dingane was legitimate. Shaka's hegemony was primarily based on military might, smashing rivals and incorporating scattered remnants into his own army. One popular narrative is that Shakas conception was a mistake after his parents got carried away during uku-hlobonga, a ritual for unmarried couples involving sexual foreplay and no penetrative sex. Age grades were responsible for a variety of activities, from guarding the camp, to cattle herding, to certain rituals and ceremonies. , Their accounts may be balanced by the rich resource of oral histories collected around 1900 by the same James Stuart, now published in six volumes as The James Stuart Archive. , In the initial years, Shaka had neither the influence nor reputation to compel any but the smallest of groups to join him, and upon Dingiswayo's death, Shaka moved southwards across the Thukela River, establishing his capital Bulawayo in Qwabe territory; he never did move back into the traditional Zulu heartland. He reformed the remnants of the Mthethwa and other regional tribes and later defeated Zwide in the Zulu Civil War of 1819–20. It was 80 km further south of his previous royal residence kwaBulawayo, on the site of the present day town of Stanger. The Zulu Kings and people pay homage to King Shaka's throne to this day. Shaka organised various grades into regiments, and quartered them in special military kraals, with regiments having their own distinctive names and insignia. As his kingdom grew, he built a far bigger KwaBulawayo, a royal household of about 1,400 huts, in the Mhlathuze valley, some 27 km from the present town of Eshowe. His reforms of local society built on existing structures. Shaka is without doubt the greatest commander to have come out of Africa.. Shaka thus spent his earliest years at his father's esiKlebeni homestead near present Babanango, in the hallowed locality known as the EmaKhosini or Burial-place of the Kings, where Senzangakhona's forebears, the descendants of Zulu (Nkosinkulu), had been chiefs for generations. Discipline. Shaka's corpse was dumped by his assassins in an empty grain pit, which was then filled with stones and mud. With Qwabe, Hlubi and Mkhize support, Shaka was finally able to summon a force capable of resisting the Ndwandwe (of the Nxumalo clan). His mother Nandi was the daughter of the rival clan chief Mbhengi. , Military historians of the Zulu War must also be considered for their description of Zulu fighting methods and tactics, including authors like Ian Knight and Robert Edgerton. The Mfecane produced Mzilikazi of the Khumalo, a general of Shaka's. Shaka's army set out on a massive programme of expansion, killing or enslaving those who resisted in the territories he conquered. Shaka then took them on 60-mile hikes, often at a fast trot, with any warrior failing to keep up being slain on the spot. Instead of hypothesizing that they all chose to imitate Shaka, it is easier to imagine that he modeled his state on theirs. History has portrayed Shaka, founder of the Zulu nation, as a pitiless and savage conqueror. This was too much for his assailants and they leapt upon him, stabbing. Shaka was born in 1787. The young men were taken away to be enrolled alongside others from all sections of the kingdom in an appropriate amabutho, or age-regiment. As you continue reading, you will at some point find yourself … Shaka's half-brother Dingane assumed power and embarked on an extensive purge of pro-Shaka elements and chieftains, running over several years, in order to secure his position. The hides of the cattle were used to provide the shields of the warriors and an attempt was made to select cattle with distinctive skin colouring for each amabutho. Though much remains unknown about Shaka's personal appearance, sources tend to agree he had a strong, muscular body and was not fat. Spurned as an illegitimate son, Shaka spent his childhood in his mother's settlements, where he was initiated into an ibutho lempi (fighting unit), serving as a warrior under Dingiswayo. In 1826, under Zwide's successor, Sikhunyane, they again fought the Zulu, but were totally routed. Morris nevertheless references a large number of sources, including Stuart, and A. T. Bryant's extensive but uneven "Olden Times in Zululand and Natal", which is based on four decades of exhaustive interviews of tribal sources. According to Donald Morris, Shaka ordered that no crops should be planted during the following year of mourning, no milk (the basis of the Zulu diet at the time) was to be used, and any woman who became pregnant was to be killed along with her husband. He thus grew up in the court of Dingiswayo, who welcomed them with friendliness. It is sometimes held that such support was used more for very light forces designed to extract tribute in cattle and slaves from neighbouring groups. These developments resulted in the evolution of powerful figures in later reigns with strong local power bases that they had been able to build up because of royal appointments and favours. Scholarship in recent years has revised views of the sources on Shaka's reign. of his attempts to revise Western thinking about Shaka.. The hypothesis that several states of a new kind arose about the same time does not take account of the contrast between the short line of Shaka and the long pedigrees of his most important opponents – especially the coalition grouped around his deadly enemy Zwide (d. 1822). Born Sigidi Kasenzangakhona in 1787, Shaka was a king who ruled the Zulu from 1816-1828. Shaka chose a particularly gruesome revenge on her, locking her in a house and placing jackals or hyenas inside: they devoured her and, in the morning, Shaka burned the house to the ground. The fast-moving Zulu raiding party, or "ibutho lempi," on a mission invariably travelled light, driving cattle as provisions on the hoof, and were not weighed down with heavy weapons and supply packs. Transgressions were punished by death. Oral sources record that in this period of devastation, a singular Zulu, a man named Gala, eventually stood up to Shaka and objected to these measures, pointing out that Nandi was not the first person to die in Zululand. A diversion was created by Mbopa, and Dingane and Mhlangana struck the fatal blows. Under Shaka's successors, Dingane, Mpande, and Cetshwayo the Zulu monarchy profoundly influenced the course of South African history. Supposedly if he killed Magaye, it would appear to be out of jealousy because Magaye was so handsome and "Shaka himself was ugly, with a protruding forehead". During his brief reign, which lasted only ten years after his final defeat of the Ndwandwe, his regiments continuously went on campaign, steadily extending their assaults further afield as the areas near at hand were stripped of their cattle. Despite his attempts to deny paternity, Senzangakhona eventually installed Nandi as his third wife. Later, probably at the time of the Great Famine, known as the Madlantule (c.1802), Shaka was taken to the Mthethwa people, where shelter was found in the home of Nandi's aunt. Moreover, he was alert to the advantages that their trade might bring to him. They spent two whole days recuperating in one instance, and on another they rested for a day and two nights before pursuing their enemy. He and his mother, Nandi, were exiled by Senzangakona, and found refuge with the Mthethwa. Emperor Shaka the Great is an epic poem based on the Zulu oral tradition, compiled in Zulu then translated by South African Poet Mazisi Kunene. Shaka's troops maintained a strong position on the crest of the hill. A number of historians[who?] Stuart's early 20th century work was continued by D. McK. Isaacs was aided in this by Henry Francis Fynn, whose diary (actually a rewritten collage of various pap… In the space of twelve years during the early nineteenth century, he transformed the small Zulu chieftains into a large and powerful military force. And their leader was Shaka - King of the Zulu. Those seeking an explanation for Shaka’s brutality may begin with his childhood. In a two-day running battle, the Zulu inflicted a resounding defeat on their opponents. Shaka had made enough enemies among his own people to hasten his demise. , The Zulu monarch was killed by three assassins sometime in 1828; September is the most frequently cited date, when almost all available Zulu manpower had been sent on yet another mass sweep to the north. This time Shaka wore out the invaders by pretending he was retreating and drawing Zwide's forces deep into his own territory; then, when he had successfully exhausted the invaders, he flung his own regiments on them and defeated them conclusively at the Mhlathuze river. Their effects were felt even far north of the Zambezi River. Shaka was victorious in battle, although his forces sustained heavy casualties, which included his head military commander, Umgobhozi Ovela Entabeni. Because of his background as a soldier, Shaka taught the Zulus that the most effective way of becoming powerful quickly was by conquering and controlling other tribes. Shaka's enemies described him as ugly in some respects. Nevertheless, the concept of "light" forces is questionable. Ritter's novel Shaka Zulu (1955), a potboiling romance that was re-edited into something more closely resembling a history. Shaka was born almost certainly in 1787. His mother was Nandi, the daughter of a Langeni chief. He was one of the most influential monarchs of the Zulu Kingdom, responsible for re-organizing the Zulu military into a formidable force via a series of wide-reaching and influential reforms. His outstanding deeds of courage attracted the attention of his overlord and, rising rapidly in Dingiswayo's army, he became one of his foremost commanders. It seems much more likely that Shaka, seeking to build the power of a previously insignificant chiefdom, drew on an existing heritage of statecraft known to his immediate neighbors. The story that sandals were discarded to toughen the feet of Zulu warriors has been noted in various military accounts such as The Washing of the Spears, Like Lions They Fought, and Anatomy of the Zulu Army. DVD, Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay, "History of Shaka (Tshaka), King of the Zulu", "The Zulu are coming to Civilization 6 in the Rise and Fall expansion", "Notices of the Cape And Southern Africa, Since The Appointment, As Governor, Of Major-Gen. Sir Geo. A group of warriors who held on to their assegais instead of hurling them, and who moved right up to the enemy behind the shelter of a barrier of shields would have its opponents at its mercy and would be able to accomplish complete victory. , The figure of Shaka thus remains an ambiguous one in African oral tradition, defying simplistic depictions of the Zulu king as a heroic, protean nation builder on one hand, or a depraved monster on the other. But, as Dingiswayo's favourite, he seems to have been granted an unusual amount of freedom to carve out a bigger principality for himself by conquering and assimilating his neighbours, including the Buthelezi clan and the Langeni of his boyhood days. They were organized in female equivalents of the male amabutho and took part in ceremonial dancing and displays. He was born c. 1787. This "imagining of Shaka" it is held, should be balanced by a sober view of the historical record, and allow greater scope for the contributions of indigenous African discourse. He never married nor had any recognized children, which was highly unusual. His father Senzangakhona was a minor chief of the Zulu speaking clans, while his mother Nandi was the daughter of Chief Mbhengi of the rival Langeni clan. He was one of the most influential monarchs in the Zulu kingdom. His role in the Mfecane is highly controversial. Most historians[who?] General histories of Southern Africa are also valuable including Noel Mostert's "Frontiers" and a detailed account of the results from the Zulu expansion, J.D. He is Shaka the unshakeable, Thunderer-while-sitting, son of Menzi As he grew to manhood, Shaka began to discover new talents and faculties. J.H. Shaka (ca. Shaka fought as a warrior under Jobe, and then under Jobe's successor, Dingiswayo, leader of … In fact, European travellers to Shaka's kingdom demonstrated advanced technology such as firearms and writing, but the Zulu monarch was less than convinced. Omer-Cooper's "The Zulu Aftermath", which advances the traditional Mfecane theory.. By means of much drilling and discipline, Shaka built up his forces, which soon became the terror of the land. These numbers are, however, controversial. The white traders of Port Natal.  He also had two prominent front teeth. , The figure of Shaka still sparks interest among not only the contemporary Zulu but many worldwide who have encountered the tribe and its history.  In this way a greater sense of cohesion was created, though it never became complete, as subsequent civil wars attest. While in the Mthethwa army Shaka became engrossed in problems of strategy and battle tactics, and Dingiswayo contributed much toward Shaka's later accomplishments in war. A number of regiments extending several ranks deep formed a dense body known as the chest (isifuba), while on each side a regiment moved forward forming the horns. Sigidi kaSenzangakhona commonly knows as Shaka was a great Zulu king and conqueror.  Several other historians of the Zulu, and the Zulu military system, however, affirm the mobility rate of up to 50 miles per day.. He named his great place KwaBulawayo (`at the place of the murder'). After a first expedition had been defeated by the superior control and strategies of the Zulu at Gqokoli Hill, Zwide, in April 1818, sent all his army into Zululand. The increased military efficiency led to more and more clans being incorporated into Shaka's Zulu empire, while other tribes moved away to be out of range of Shaka's impis. There is an anecdote that Shaka joked with one of his friends, Magaye, that he could not kill Magaye because he would be laughed at. Loyalty was also maintained through fear, as anyone who was suspected of rivaling Dingane was killed. It argues that in many ways, the image of Shaka has been "invented" in the modern era according to whatever agenda persons hold. Losses were high overall but the efficiency of the new Shakan innovations was proved. There is no evidence to suggest that Shaka betrayed Dingiswayo. In 1843, The majority then submitted to Shaka. When Zulu elders including Senzangakhona himself discovered that Nandi was pregnant, they tried to deny it. The Gaza Empire. At some point, Zwide barely escaped Shaka, though the exact details are not known. By the time the first white traders arrived at Port … It is claimed that Shaka was born into Senzangakhona's household but that the couple were not yet married according to traditional custom. Numbers of the young women of the kingdom were assembled at the military settlements. and he kept his impi on continuous military campaigns until he thought they had earned the right to wear the headring ( isicoco) of manhood. Militarism was thereafter to be a way of life for him, and one that he was to inflict on thousands of others. He is the long-strided pursuer, son of Ndaba, A standard general reference work in the field is Donald Morris's "The Washing of The Spears", which notes that the sources, as a whole, for this historical era are not the best. This ambiguity continues to lend the image of Shaka its continued power and influence, almost two centuries after his death.. King Shaka was born in the lunar month of uNtulikazi (July) in the year of 1787 near present-day Melmoth, KwaZulu-Natal Province, the son of the Zulu chief Senzangakhona. [online] About.com [accessed 17 September 2009], Chaka by Thomas Mofolo and Daniel P. Kunene, Colonialism: An International Social, Cultural, and Political Encyclopedia by Melvin E. Page, A Military History of South Africa From the Dutch-Khoi Wars to the End of Apartheid by Timothy J. Stapleton, Emperor Shaka the Great: A Zulu Epic by Mazisi Kunene, Amatikulu, a Nature Reserve in Kwa-Zulu Natal, Andries Pretorius Monument , Graaf Reniet. Most popular accounts are based on E.A. He was the son of the Zulu tribe’s chief. Shaka, however, dreaded producing a legitimate heir. The effects from Dutch pressure on the western African frontier by the end of the  Some of these practices are shown below. Historian John Laband dismisses these stories as myth, writing: "What are we to make, then, of [European trader Henry Francis] Fynn's statement that once the Zulu army reached hard and stony ground in 1826, Shaka ordered sandals of ox-hide to be made for himself? Furthermore, it is believed that he taught his warriors how to use the shield's left side to hook the enemy's shield to the right, exposing the enemy's ribs for a fatal spear stab. Malcolm in 1950. The praise song is one of the most widely used poetic forms in Africa, applying not only to spirits but to men, animals, plants and even towns.. Shaka's campaigns part of a larger chaos An increasingly cruel and paranoid Shaka Zulu was assassinated in 1828, but that didn't mark the end of his effects on the history of southern Africa. Taken aback by such candid talk, the Zulu king is supposed to have called off the destructive edicts, rewarding the blunt teller-of-truths with a gift of cattle. The current tendency appears to be to lionise him; popular film and other media have certainly contributed to his appeal. With the impi in the iziCwe regiment, he had the companionship he had previously lacked, while the battlefield provided a stadium in which he could demonstrate his talents and courage. By then, Shaka had no major rival in the area of present day KwaZulu/Natal. At that time there were two strong rival Nguni groups, the Mthethwa led by the paramount chief Dingiswayo, and the Ndwandwe under the ferocious Zwide. Groups of refugees from Shaka's assaults, first Hlubi and Ngwane clans, later followed by the Mantatees and the Matabele of Mzilikazi, crossed the Drakensberg to the west, smashing chiefdoms in their path. Some had black shields, others used white shields with black spots, and some had white shields with brown spots, while others used pure brown or white shields.. By 1819 the newly forged Zulu nation was the largest and most populous ever seen in southeastern Africa. 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[ 32 ] drilled troops. Details are not known into the small South African historian Dan Wylie has expressed skepticism of the royal.. ] others dispute this characterization ( see Scholarship section below ) suggest that betrayed. 1 million to 2 million ceded them land, and found refuge with the and! Mhodi, a Province in South Africa. [ 45 ] by generosity hospitality... S brutality may begin with his childhood experiences were unusual one that he was responsible for protecting them from animals.